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桥式起重机的操作注意事项

远华起重 时间:2014-08-08

摘要:桥式起重机的操作注意事项....……
(1)起重机械通常结构庞大,机构复杂,能完成起升运动、水平运动。例如,桥式起重机能完成起升、大车运行和小车运行3个运动;门座起重机能完成起升、变幅、回转和大车运行4个运动。在作业过程中,常常是几个不同方向的运动同时操作,技术难度较大。起重机械所吊运的重物多种多样,载荷是变化的。有的重物重达几百吨乃至上千吨,有的物体长达几十米,形状也很不规则,有散粒、热融状态、易燃易爆危险物品等,桥式起重机吊运过程复杂而危险。
(1) the hoisting machinery usually huge structure, complicated mechanism, can finish the lifting movement, horizontal movement. For example, overhead crane to complete the lifting, travel and car running 3 motion; portal crane hoisting, luffing, can complete the rotary and traveling 4 movement. In the process, often several different directions of movement and operation, technical difficulty. Lifting the lifting weights varied, the load is changing. Some weight weighing hundreds of tons of thousands of tons, some objects up to tens of meters, the shape is irregular, with granular, hot melt state, inflammable and explosive dangerous goods, lifting process is complex and dangerous.
  (2)大多数起重机械,需要在较大的空间范围内运行,有的要装设轨道和车轮(如塔吊、桥吊等);有的要装上轮胎或履带在地面上行走(如汽车吊、履带吊等);有的需要在钢丝绳上行走(如客运、货运架空索道),活动空间较大,一旦造成事故影响的范围也较大。有的起重机械需要直接载运人员在导轨、平台或钢丝绳上做升降运动(如电梯、升降平台等),其可靠性直接影响人身安全。
(2) the majority of hoisting machinery, needs to be run on a large spatial extent, some want to install rail and wheel (such as tower crane, bridge crane); some have a tire or crawler walking on the ground (such as auto crane, crawler crane etc.); some need to walk on the steel wire rope (such as passenger, freight ropeway), activity space is larger, once the accident affected the scope is big. Some lifting machinery directly carrying passengers do lifting movement on the guide rail, platform or steel wire rope (such as elevators, lifting platform and so on), its reliability directly influence the security of person.
  (3)起重机械暴露的、活动的零部件较多,且常与吊运作业人员直接接触(如吊钩、钢丝绳等),潜在许多偶发的危险因素。作业环境复杂。从大型钢铁联合企业,港口、建筑工地、铁路枢纽、旅游胜地,都有桥式起重机械在运行;作业场所常常会遇有高温、高压、易燃易爆、输电线路、强磁等危险因素,对设备和作业人员形成威胁。
(3) the hoisting machinery exposure, activities of more components, and often in direct contact with the lifting operators (such as hook, wire rope), potential accidental risk factors. Complex working environment. From the large iron and steel enterprises, construction sites, ports, railway hub, tourism resort, has the hoisting machinery in operation; workplace often encounter high temperature, high pressure, flammable and explosive, transmission lines, magnetic and other risk factors, a threat to the equipment and personnel.
  (4)起重机械作业中常常需要多人配合,共同进行。一个操作,要求指挥、捆扎、驾驶等作业人员配合熟练、动作协调、互相照应。作业人员应有处理现场紧急情况的能力。多个作业人员之间的密切配合,通常存在较大的难度。起重机械的上述工作特点,决定了它与安全生产的关系很大。如果对起重机械的设计、制造、安装使用和维修等环节上稍有疏忽,就可能造成伤亡或设备事故。一方面造成人员的伤亡,另一方面也会造成很大的经济损失。
(4) in the operation of hoisting machinery often need more people with, together. An operation command, request, strapping, driving skilled workers, motor coordination, cooperate with each other. Operating personnel should have ability of emergency treatment on site. Close coordination between multiple operators, usually there is a big difficulty. The working characteristics of heavy machinery, its decision and the relationship between safety greatly. If the design, for the lifting machinery manufacturing, installation and repair and other aspects of a slight negligence, it may cause casualties or equipment accidents. On the one hand result in casualties, on the other hand, it will cause great economic loss.
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