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受拉桥式起重机螺栓的预紧力与外力间的关系

远华起重 时间:2014-08-06 

摘要:受拉桥式起重机螺栓的预紧力与外力间的关系 ....……
桥式起重机若将螺母充分拧紧,则螺母在桥式起重机螺栓的轴线方向前进了,必然会使桥式起重机螺栓受到预紧力而使板受到压力,假定沿板间将桥式起重机螺栓切断,用P代表预紧力,T代表板间的挤压力,由平衡条件得到P=T,即预紧力与挤压力相等,此时桥式起重机螺栓杆的伸长Δl1,板的挤压变形量为,若以E1和A1代表桥式起重机螺栓杆的弹性模量和截面积,E2和A2代表板的弹性模量和截面积,按虎克定律,由于P=T。
If fully tighten the nut, the nut in the axial direction of the bolt forward, will enable the bolt pre tightening force and the plate is under pressure, if the bolt cut along the plate, with P representing the pretightening force, extrusion pressure on behalf of T plates, get P=T by the equilibrium condition, i.e. pre tightening force and the extrusion pressure is equal, the bolt rod elongation Δ L1, amount of extrusion plate, the elastic modulus and the cross-sectional area in E1 and A1 represent the bolt rod, elastic modulus and the sectional area of E2 and A2 represent the board, according to Hooke's law, because P=T
  当外力N作用时,由于此力并不直接加在桥式起重机螺栓上,而是加在被连板上,因而将被连件趋于分开,压缩变形减小,减少了板间的挤压力,使挤压力由减小为,此时由平衡条件有当加大到板间原来的压缩变形完全消失,板间的挤压力也随之消失,,与之平衡的预紧力也随之消失。但并不意味着桥式起重机螺栓不承受拉力,反之,当板间的压缩变形完全消失后,桥式起重机螺栓相应被拉长了,使桥式起重机螺栓拉长的力的增量,此时由力的平衡条件。由以上分析可知,拉力桥式起重机螺栓连接必须施加预紧力,被连接件受到挤压,当承受外力时,连接件间的挤压力随外力增大而减小,预紧力也减小。当外力加大到使两连接件刚好分开时预紧力减小为零,桥式起重机螺栓所受的拉力将大于原来静连接时施加的预紧力。
When the role of external force N, because this force is not directly on the bolt, but in the connecting plate, and will be even pieces tend to separate, to reduce compression, reducing the pressure plates, the extrusion pressure by reduced to, the equilibrium conditions when added to the original compression plate deformation disappear completely, the extrusion pressure between the plates, disappear, preload and the balance will disappear. But that does not mean that the bolt is not under tension, on the contrary, when disappeared completely compression plates, bolt corresponding elongated, incremental bolts elongated force, at this time You Li equilibrium conditions. From the above analysis, tensile bolt connection must be the preload, connected parts by extrusion, when subjected to external force, connected between the extrusion pressure decreases with the increase of external force, pre tightening force is reduced. When the external force is increased to make the two connecting piece just separate preload reduced to zero, the pretightening force of bolt by force will be greater than the original static connection.
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